Unraveling copepod secrets and techniques one leg at a time
A weblog by HYPCOP
Hyperbenthic copepods (HYPCOP) are a really tough and numerous group to work with, and identification goes painstakingly gradual, as a result of some species can solely be distinguished from each other based mostly on small particulars in a few of their tiny legs. As of now, we have now no specialists in marine benthic copepods in Norway and our biggest useful resource is our collaborator Anders Hobæk and the detailed drawings of G.O. Sars from the early 1900s .
Anders is a senior researcher scientist on the Norwegian Institute for Water Analysis (NIVA) right here in Bergen. He’s specialised in copepod taxonomy, however his focus was totally on freshwater copepods, or marine pelagic copepods. Which makes the marine benthic copepods just a bit bit tougher to work with, nonetheless, his expertise are transferable and so we get collectively a number of occasions a 12 months to work on our assortment of benthic copepods to dissect them and determine them.
Starting of June, we had once more a type of get togethers in Flødevigen on the Institute of Marine Analysis (IMR), the place Tone Falkenhaug, the challenge chief of HYPCOP, is located. For per week we went via the primary clades and teams of species that we had DNA barcodes of however not but a confirmed species identify. Plenty of the identification was accomplished with assist of the wealthy and detailed illustrations of G.O. Sars1 printed work in 1901 – 03 and 1919 – 21, “An account of Crustacea of Norway”
Sars devoted a lifetime of figuring out and describing quite a lot of species and he didn’t neglect the wealthy and fantastic group of backside dwelling copepods. Each species he encountered in these early days he described and drew intimately; he didn’t miss the smallest particulars, that as of now, become of uttermost significance in figuring out the species. With small copepods you want microscope and effective instruments. The very first thing to have a look at is the overall form, is it very dorsally flat, like Peltidium purpureum, or extra dimensional like Harpacticus flexus?
Intercourse can also be an necessary characteristic; females are sometimes characterised by carrying eggs; one egg sack or two egg sacks can already lead you in the appropriate group. Males have typically bigger antennule made for holding on to females when mating, and different specialised instruments that may be species particular. The little claws, known as maxilliped, are they giant, small, virtually invisible? What in regards to the first pair of legs? The second, third and fourth? The fifth pair of legs is commonly very attribute for the species and in sure females, like Thalestris longimana, generally is a big compared of the remainder of its physique.
Our work has a continues workflow consisting of, gathering the copepods, extracting their tissue for DNA barcoding, and retaining the exoskeleton. As soon as the DNA is efficiently sequenced, we will take the exoskeleton and dissect the animal leg by leg to finalize the identification. That manner the copepod is recognized based mostly on its DNA and morphological options, as this isn’t all the time mutually unique. DNA might be difficult as you want reference library to seek out the proper species, which is as of now, not full, and even missing for a lot of species. In addition to, there may be things like DNA contamination, cross contamination between species, due to this fact you all the time should take a look at the morphology to exclude that the DNA offers you the incorrect species. Along with photos of the animals we’re build up a invaluable reference library of DNA sequences and a museum assortment of dissected animals on mounted slides. This manner copepod range will proceed to be invaluable for future generations high examine.
1Sars, G. O. 1901-03. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida.- Bergen Museum, Bergen & Christiana. 171 pp. + 109 plates Sars, G. O. 1919-21. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. VII. Copepoda. Complement. – Bergen Museum, Bergen & Christiana. 121 pp. + 74 plates