Stegoceras Muscle Research


Researchers have examined the musculature of a bone-headed dinosaur in a bid to raised perceive hypothesised intraspecific, head-butting fight. Pachycephalosaurs are a gaggle of Late Cretaceous, bipedal ornithischian dinosaurs identified from Asia and North America. They’re characterised by their thickened skulls, that are generally adorned with lumps, bumps and spikes. The skulls, a few of which might be as much as 20 cm thick have been the main focus of a number of analysis. It has been recommended that these thickened cranium domes advanced as these dinosaurs indulged in intraspecific head-butting contests, both head-to-head impacts or utilizing their heads to butt the flanks of their opponents.

A replica skull of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis.
Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reproduction cranium. The thickened cranium domes, which in some specimens of P. wyomingensis have been as much as 20 cm thick are thought to have advanced as these dinosaurs participated in intraspecific head-butting fight. Image credit score: Every thing Dinosaur.

To learn a weblog submit from 2011 trying on the proof for head-butting fight in pachycephalosaurs: Research Helps Concept of Pachycephalosaur Intraspecific Fight (Head-butting).

Stegoceras Muscle Research

Writing within the open-access, on-line journal PLoS One, researchers from Carleton College, Ottawa in collaboration with Professor Phil Currie (College of Alberta) have examined the postcranial skeleton of a specimen of the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum to realize a greater understanding of the musculature of the limbs, hips and the bottom of the tail. The specimen (UALVP 2) is among the greatest preserved pachycephalosaur postcranial skeletons found up to now and the perfect preserved pachycephalosaur found in Canada. The limb bones protect muscle scars and different floor textures which enabled the analysis crew to precisely assemble the muscular tissues related to the forelimbs, hindlimbs and the pelvic area.

Pachycepahlosaurus indulging in head-butting combat.  Reporting upon a Stegoceras muscle study.
A charging Pachycephalosaurus.

Specializing in Muscle mass Not Bones

Not like most research regarding the Dinosauria, the fossil bones weren’t the central focus of this analysis. The scientists who embrace Professor Phil Currie (College of Alberta) and PhD pupil Bryan Moore (Carleton College), examined the bones to find out the structure, form and measurement of the muscular tissues that have been connected to them. The crew have been inquisitive about mapping the *myology of the again finish of a pachycephalosaur in order that they may assess how the postcranial skeleton would have assisted with the hypothesised head-butting contests.

The time period *myology refers back to the examine of the form, construction and association of muscular tissues.

Stegoceras muscle study.
Pelvic and hind limb muscular reconstruction of Stegoceras validum. Superficial musculature in lateral view (A). Deep musculature in lateral view (B). Superficial musculature in anterodorsolateral view (C) and (D) deep musculature in anterodorsolateral view. Image credit score: Moore et al/PLoS One.

Sturdy Legs and a Huge Pelvis

The examine of specimen quantity UALVP 2 demonstrated that the forelimbs of Stegoceras validum weren’t particularly strong and powerful, notably compared to early, lizard-hipped bipeds such because the Triassic theropod Tawa hallae. Nevertheless, in distinction, in Stegoceras the hind limbs and pelvic space have been extra strong with massive, highly effective muscular tissues related to the pelvis, the thighs and the bottom of the tail. These bigger muscular tissues, together with the huge pelvis and stout hind limbs, produced a stronger, extra secure pelvic construction that will have proved advantageous throughout hypothesised intraspecific head-butting contests.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model.
The brand new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus mannequin. The mannequin has a big dent in its cranium dome, suggesting injury ensuing from a headbutting contest with a rival.

The image above exhibits a Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur mannequin from the Wild Safari Prehistoric World vary, to view this vary of figures in inventory at Every thing Dinosaur: Safari Ltd Dinosaur Fashions.

The analysis crew concludes that the hind quarters of Stegoceras advanced to assist this small dinosaur ship and take in affect forces related to the proposed head-butting behaviour. The scientists counsel that extra analysis is required to look at the potential velocity at which the thickened cranium might be propelled ahead throughout such contests. They suggest extra analysis assessing the postcranial properties of different pachycephalosaurs and evaluating their bauplan with related sized dinosaurs corresponding to Thescelosaurus (T. neglectus).

The scientific paper: “The appendicular myology of Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia: Pachycephalosauridae) and implications for the head-butting speculation” by Bryan R. S. Moore, Mathew J. Roloson, Philip J. Currie, Michael J. Ryan, R. Timothy Patterson and Jordan C. Mallon printed in PLoS One.


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